Let a, b, and c be the sides of the triangle. Let s be the semiperimeter, i.e. s = (a + b + c) / 2. Let A be the area of the triangle, and let x be the radius of the incircle.
Divide the triangle into three smaller triangles by drawing a line segment from each vertex to the incenter. The areas of the smaller triangles are ax/2, bx/2, and cx/2. Thus, A = ax/2 + bx/2 + cx/2, or A = sx.
We use Heron's formula, which is A = sqrt(s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)). This gives us x = sqrt((s-a)(s-b)(s-c)/s).